MEDIX, God. 21 Br. 117  •  Pregledni članak  •  Gastroenterologija HR ENG

Epidemiologija, primarna i sekundarna prevencija bolesti probavnog sustava: tko, kada i kako?Epidemiology, primary and secondary prevention of diseases of the digestive system: who, when and how?

Marko Banić, Lidija Prka, Ranko Stevanović

Bolesti probavnoga sustava zauzimaju četvrto mjesto među najčešćim uzrocima smrti i stoga su važan javnozdravstveni problem. Također, karcinom debeloga crijeva, nakon karcinoma pluća i dojke, najčešći je uzrok pobolijevanja i smrtnosti od zloćudnih bolesti. S obzirom na navedeno, jasno je da prevencija i rano otkrivanje bolesti probavnoga sustava čine važan dio zdravstvene zaštite cjelokupnog pučanstva. Najvažniji oblici primarne prevencije bolesti probavnoga sustava odnose se na edukaciju i zdravu prehranu – prehranu bogatu vlaknima, uzimanje više voća i povrća, smanjenje količine masti u hrani i smanjenje dnevnog unosa crvenoga mesa. U sekundarnoj prevenciji važno je prepoznati populaciju visokog rizika da bi se mogle provesti zaštitne mjere prije nastanka bolesti te rano otkrivanje bolesti. Nesudjelovanje bolesnika (tzv. loš „compliance“) u prevenciji, tj. liječenju, znatno produljuje trajanje liječenja, a zbog učestalijih komplikacija umnogostručuje se broj hospitalizacija kao i ukupan trošak liječenja, uz istodobno povećanje mortaliteta i smanjenje kvalitete života. Stoga je aktivno sudjelovanje stanovnika i bolesnika u prevenciji i liječenju jedan od prioriteta u postizanju boljega zdravlja probavnoga sustava u populaciji. 

Ključne riječi:
primarna prevencija; probavni sustav; sekundarna prevencija

Članak u cijelosti pročitajte u tiskanom izdanju MEDIX, God. 21 Br. 117

Diseases of the digestive system represent an important public health issue as they are the fourth most common cause of death. After lung and breast cancer, colon cancer represents the most common cause of morbidity and mortality from malignant diseases and it is evident that the prevention and early detection of diseases affecting the digestive tract are an important part of health care to the entire population. The most important forms of primary prevention of gastrointestinal diseases are related to being educated about the diseases and maintaining a healthy diet – one that is rich in fibre, fruits and vegetables, reducing the amount of unhealthy fats in food as well as reducing daily consumption of red meat. In secondary prevention, it is important to identify the high-risk population in order to take preventive measures before the occurrence of the disease, as well as early detection of the disease. The non-participation of patients (i.e. bad compliance) in prevention programs, or that are in treatment, greatly prolongs the duration of the treatment, and due to more frequent complications the total number of hospitalizations and money spent on treatment multiplies, all while increasing mortality and decreasing the quality of life. Therefore, the active participation of the general population and patients in the prevention and treatment is one of the priorities for achieving better health of the digestive system in the population. 

Key words:
digestive system; primary prevention; secondary prevention