MEDIX, God. 19 Br. 107/108  •  Pregledni članak  •  Toksikologija HR ENG

Aflatoksini u hrani i hepatocelularni karcinomAflatoxins in foods and hepatocellular carcinoma

Maja Šegvić Klarić

Aflatoksini su toksični metaboliti plijesni koji imaju hepatotoksično i kancerogeno djelovanje. Ljudi su zbog hrane najviše izloženi AFB1 te zbog mlijeka i mliječnih proizvoda AFM1. AFB1 se u jetri metabolizira u nekoliko produkata od kojih AFB1-egzo-epoksid ima najveći mutageni i kancerogeni potencijal. Kancerogenost AFM1 je znatno manja od AFB1. Kod ljudi u nekim zemljama Azije i Afrike zabilježena je akutna aflatoksikoza te hepatocelularni karcinom (HCC) koji je izravno povezan s unosom AFB1. Pretpostavlja se da u etiologiji HCC-a važnu ulogu ima sinergizam između AFB1 i infekcije s virusom hepatitisa B te sinergizam AFB1 i mikotoksina fumonizina, koji su promotori kancerogeneze. Većina zemalja u svijetu ima propise o dopuštenim koncentracijama pojedinih mikotoksina u hrani, pri čemu postoje neke razlike. Hrvatsko zakonodavstvo je uskladilo propise s Europskom unijom. 

Ključne riječi:
aflatoksini; hepatocelularni karcinom; mikotoksini

Članak u cijelosti pročitajte u tiskanom izdanju MEDIX, God. 19 Br. 107/108

Aflatoxins are toxic fungal metabolites that exert hepatotoxic and carcinogenic properties. Humans are primarily exposed to AFB1 and AFM1 through food and milk or diary products, respectively. AFB1 is metabolized in the liver to several products. Among them, AFB1-exo-epoxide has a major mutagenic and carcinogenic potential. Carcinogenicity of AFM1 is much lower in comparison with AFB1. Acute aflatoxicosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in humans were recorded in some African and Asian countries and were connected with AFB1 intake. It was suggested that synergism between AFB1 and infection with hepatitis B virus plays an important role in the aetiology of HCC, as well as the synergism of AFB1 and fumonisins – mycotoxins, which act as promoters of carcinogenesis. Most countries in the world have regulations on permissible concentrations of mycotoxins in foods, but there are some differences. Croatian laws are in line with European legislation. 

Key words:
aflatoxins; carcinoma, hepatocellular; mycotoxins