MEDIX, God. 14 Br. 75/76  •  Stručni članak  •  Stomatologija u 21. stoljeću HR ENG

Temporomandibularne ozljede i poremećaji u sportuTemporomandibular injuries and disorders in sport

Vjekoslav Jerolimov

Ozljede orofacijalnog sustava u sportu su učestale, ovisno o vrsti discipline i drugim okolnostima. Temporomandibularne ozljede i poremećaji predstavljaju 2-6% svih orofacijalnih ozljeda, a rezultat su makrotrauma i mikrotrauma donje čeljusti ili zgloba. Takve traume mogu imati za posljedicu raznovrsnu simptomatologiju, koja može biti uzrokom privremenog ili trajnog prekida bavljenja sportom. U preventivne mjere kod orofacijalnih ozljeda i temporomandibularnih poremećaja pripada korištenje raznih zaštitnih sredstava: ekstraoralnih, interdentalnih (intraoralnih) i kombiniranih štitnika za usta i zube. Ozljede, bez obzira nastaju li u rekreativnom ili natjecateljskom sportu, zahtijevaju multidisciplinarni pristup, kako u dijagnostici i liječenju, tako i u provođenju preventivnih mjera. Sportski liječnici, treneri, sportski djelatnici, roditelji i sportaši trebaju trajno biti educirani i upućivani u važnost preventivnih mjera, pri čemu je uloga sportskog stomatologa nezaobilazna

Ključne riječi:
sport, temporomandibularne ozljede i poremećaji, prevencija, individualni interdentalni štitnici

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Orofacial injuries are common in sporting activities, depending on type of sport and many other circumstances. Temporomandibular injuries and disorders have been found in 2-6% of all orofacial injuries cases, and are result of macrotraumas and microtraumas, resulting in various symptomatology, with temporary or permanent cessation of sport activity. Most injuries in sports are predictable and therefore preventable. Measures for preventing orofacial injuries and temporomandibular disorders in sporting activities include various types of protection appliances: extraoral, intra-oral and combined mouth and teeth protectors. Intraoral (interdental) sports guards (mouthguards) can be stock or ready-made, mouth-formed (self-adapted) or custom-made mouthguards. These mouthguards, mutually different in quality, play a very important role in prevention of orofacial and temporomandibular tissue injuries. Use of mouthguards significantly reduces the number of orofacial tissue injuries, i.e. for about 10 to 60 times, and also reduces the severity of sustained injuries. Sports injuries, as well as those to orofacial and temporomandibular area, regardless of whether they are incurred in recreational or competitive sport, require multidisciplinary approach, both in diagnostics and treatment and in implementation of prevention measures. Sports doctors, coaches, sports officials, parents and athletes themselves should also be permanently educated on the exceptional importance of prevention measures, thus making the role of sports dentist unavoidable.

Key words:
sport, orofacial injuries, temporomandibular disorders, prevention, custom-made mouthguards