MEDIX, God. 16 Br. 87/88  •  Pregledni članak  •  Interna medicina HR ENG

Primarna prevencija arterijske hipertenzije - važnost smanjenja prekomjernog unosa kuhinjske soliPrimary prevention of arterial hypertension – importance of salt res

Željko Reiner, Antoinette Kaić-Rak, Ivan Pećin, Vedran Premužić, Bojan Jelaković

Velik broj istraživanja potvrđuje kako je kuhinjska sol bitan čimbenik koji određuje visinu arterijskog tlaka, a time i prevalenciju arterijske hipertenzije. Unos kuhinjske soli (NaCl) povezuje se s koronarnom bolesti, hipertrofijom lijeve klijetke, cerebrovaskularnim inzultom i mikroalbuminurijom. S kliničkog i javnozdravstvenog aspekta, bitno je smanjiti unos NaCl. Dobre strane takve promjene očituju se ne samo u snižavanju arterijskog tlaka i smanjivanju kardiovaskularnog morbiditeta i mortaliteta nego i u poboljšanju ukupnog zdravlja. Prekomjeran unos kuhinjske soli čimbenik je rizika za osteoporozu, nefrolitijazu, karcinom želuca i nazofarinksa. Smanjenje unosa kuhinjske soli treba provoditi u sklopu ostalih promjena načina života. Odgovornost je i na institucijama vlasti i proizvođačima hrane. Više od 70% NaCl unosi se u organizam tvornički pripremljenom hranom. Cilj je nacionalne kampanje CRASH (Croatian Action on Salt and Health) probuditi svijest o važnosti smanjenog unosa soli u organizam i radu na primarnoj prevenciji. 

Ključne riječi:
CRASH; hipertenzija; karcinomi; kuhinjska sol; osteoporoza; primarna prevencija

Članak u cijelosti pročitajte u tiskanom izdanju MEDIX, God. 16 Br. 87/88

A large number of epidemiologic and clinical studies have confirmed that table salt is a significant factor in determining the blood pressure level and, thereby, the prevalence of arterial hypertension. Epidemiologic studies have shown that blood pressure increases with age only if accompanied by excessive salt intake. Correlation has also been proved with coronary heart disease, left ventricle hypertrophy, stroke, and microalbuminuria. From clinical and public health points of view, the data obtained in interventional studies are particularly important, as well as those that clearly confirm the benefit of restricting salt intake. This benefit is manifested not only in decreased blood pressure and reduction in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, but also in improved total health, since it is known that excessive salt intake is also a risk factor for osteoporosis, nephrolithiasis, gastric and nasopharyngeal cancer. Moreover, economic aspect is of particular importance too. Salt intake restriction should be performed as part of other lifestyle changes, primarily weight loss and increased physical activity. Government authorities and food manufacturers bear heavy responsibility, because ready or half-cooked food accounts for over 70% of NaCl intake. CRASH is a Croatian national campaign with an aim to increase the awareness of the excessive salt intake problem. 

Key words:
health promotion; hypertension; neoplasms; osteoporosis; primary prevention; sodium chloride; sodium, dietary