Metabolic bone diseases and vitamin D

Author: Zlatko Giljević
Abstract:

The basis in the prevention or treatment of osteoporosis is to ensure a healthy diet and moderate physical activity, and in the diet is particularly important to ensure adequate intake of calcium and vitamin D. Vitamin D deficiency is associated with impaired calcium absorption, negative calcium and phosphorus balance with consequent increase in parathyroid hormone, leading to excessive bone degradation. Optimal calcium and vitamin D intake is determined individually, although postmenopausal women with osteoporosis are advised to take a total of 600-1,200 mg of calcium and 800-1,200 IU of vitamin D daily. If the dietary intake is below the recommended values, calcium and vitamin D supplementation is advised in patients with osteoporosis. Total calcium intake (food plus supplements) should not routinely exceed 2,000 mg / day, and safe long-term use of vitamin D should not exceed 4,000 IU. In coexisting health conditions, the use of calcium and vitamin D may vary, so the assessment is always individual, with caution when using (gradually increase the dose with more frequent controls).

Key words:
calcium; osteoporosis; vitamin D