MEDIX, God. 20 Br. 111  •  Pregledni članak  •  Neurologija HR ENG

Kognitivna neurorehabilitacijaCognitive neurorehabilitation

Iris Zavoreo, Vanja Bašić-Kes

Neurodegenerativne bolesti obuhvaćaju veliku skupinu stanja, koja ovisno o vrsti patomorfološkog supstrata, lokalizaciji, načinu i opsegu zahvaćanja pojedinoga neurotransmitorskog sustava, odnosno funkcionalnoga kruga u mozgu, na različit način i u različitom opsegu utječu na pojavnost i tijek napredovanja kognitivnih poremećaja. Kognitivne tegobe koreliraju s pojavnošću lezija bijele tvari (konekcije) te moždanoga parenhima i atrofijom sive tvari (tijela neurona, funkcijska središta). Današnji principi kognitivne neurorehabilitacije počivaju na stavovima da ne postoje čvrste veze u mozgu, da se moždane stanice i njihove veze mijenjaju cijeloga života, a stimulirane su funkcijom, da nema dobne granice za promjene funkcije i organizacije mozga te da su novi, ciljani, intenzivni i zahtjevni zadatci najbolji stimulans za mozak. Uz već navedene metode u kognitivnoj rehabilitaciji primjenjuju se farmakološke metode, fizikalne metode, kao i nespecifične metode u obliku promjene životnoga stila. 

Ključne riječi:
kognitivna neurorehabilitacija; mentalna stimulacija; neuroplastičnost

Članak u cijelosti pročitajte u tiskanom izdanju MEDIX, God. 20 Br. 111

Neurodegenerative diseases comprise a large group of conditions which, depending on the type of pathomorphological substrates, localization, mode and degree of affection of each neurotransmitter pathway, otherwise known as the brain circuit, can affect the incidence and course of progression of cognitive impairment in different ways and in varying degrees. Cognitive dysfunction is in correlation with white matter lesions (connections) as well as brain parenchyma and grey matter atrophy (bodies of neurons and functional centers). Today, new concept of cognitive neurorehabilitation is based on opinion that there are no fixed connections in the brain, that the brain cells and their connections are stimulated by function and they change during life, that there is no age limit for changes in the brain function and organization, and that new targeted, intensive and demanding tasks are the best stimulant for the brain. In addition to the previously mentioned methods, pharmacological and physical methods as well as non-specific methods in terms of lifestyle changes are used in cognitive rehabilitation. 

Key words:
cognitive neurorehabilitation; mental stimulation; neuroplasticity