MEDIX, God. 26 Br. 141  •  Pregledni članak  •  Infektologija HR ENG

COVID-19 – nova pandemijska virusna respiratorna bolest – izazovi u praksiCoronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) – new pandemic viral respiratory disease – challenges in practice

Nikolina Bogdanić, Diana Didović, Karlo Jeličić, Marija Kusulja, Ljiljana Lukić, Andrea Nikčević, Vladimir Krajinović, (autori s jednakim doprinosom)

Teški akutni respiratorni sindrom koronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) uzrok je nove, pandemijske virusne respiratorne bolesti COVID-19, prvi put opisane u prosincu 2019. godine u Wuhanu u Kini, od kuda se proširila na sve kontinente. Bolest se prenosi s čovjeka na čovjeka kapljično, ali i neizravnim putem. Pretpostavlja se da određeni postotak oboljelih ima asimptomatsku bolest, većina ima blaže respiratorne tegobe, manje od 15% zahtijeva hospitalizaciju, a oko 5 do 10% intenzivno liječenje zbog respiratorne insuficijencije. Najčešća komplikacija je akutni respiratorni distresni sindrom (ARDS). Bolest se dijagnosticira lančanom reakcijom polimerazom (PCR) iz obriska nazofarinksa i orofarinksa. Liječenje je simptomatsko i potporno, a za najteže slučajeve uključuje mehaničku ventilaciju i ponekad izvantjelesnu membransku oksigenaciju (ECMO). Do ovoga trenutka nisu objavljeni uvjerljivi rezultati o jasnim pozitivnim učincima nekoga lijeka na COVID-19, a ni cjepivo nije razvijeno.

Ključne riječi:
kliničke karakteristike; koronavirusna bolest (COVID-19); kritično bolesni; prijenos; SARS-CoV-2

Članak u cijelosti pročitajte u tiskanom izdanju MEDIX, God. 26 Br. 141

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is the cause of the new pandemic viral respiratory disease COVID-19, first reported in December 2019 in Wuhan, China, spreading thereafter to all the continents. The disease is transmitted from person to person via droplets, but also indirectly. It is assumed that a certain percentage of patients have asymptomatic disease, most of the patients have mild respiratory symptoms, less than 15% require hospitalization and about 5-10% needs intensive care due to a respiratory failure. Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is the most common complication. The diagnosis is confirmed by a polymerase chain reaction (PCR) from nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs. The treatment is symptomatic and supportive, and in most severe cases mechanical ventilation and sometimes extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) are needed. No convincing results about positive medication effects on COVID-19 have been published so far, nor has a vaccine been developed. 

Key words:
clinical characteristics; coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19); critical illness; SARS CoV-2; transmission